Thursday, January 11, 2007

Pirâmide de Maslow - Motivações, Necessidades e Realizações




Motivar... Como ?

Ao investigar o que vem a ser motivação, descobri que para a maioria dos autores, motivação é a busca da satisfação de necessidades. Isso parece me engraçado, especialmente por parecer uma busca interminável, passando de uma satisfação para outra indefinidamente, e por ser algo que está dentro das pessoas e varia de uma pessoa para a outra. Portanto, quando se toma uma atitude buscando motivar as pessoas, provavelmente cada uma delas reagira de maneira diferente.
Abraham Maslow, psicólogo americano e grande pesquisador de comportamento, criou a Hierarquia das Necessidades mais conhecida como a Pirâmide de Maslow, na qual ele explica os 5 níveis de necessidades do ser humano.
Ø Necessidades Fisiológicas: aparecem na base da pirâmide e são básicas para a sobrevivência (alimento, repouso, reprodução). As empresas procuram satisfazer essa necessidade oferecendo: refeições, horários adequados, intervalos de descanso,transporte etc.
Ø Necessidades de Segurança: constituem o segundo nível da pirâmide. Trata-se da autopreservação, ou seja, de evitar o perigo físico, evitar a privação das necessidades fisiológicas, buscar a estabilidade. Algumas empresas oferecem seguro de vida e de acidentes, planos de saúde, curso de preparação para a aposentadoria etc visando minimizar a insegurança de seus empregados.
Ø Necessidades Sociais: as pessoas sentem necessidades de serem aceitas e de pertencerem a grupos estabelecendo assim relações de amizade, afeto e amor. Quando não satisfeitas, tornam-se hostis, solitárias e deprimidas. O papel da empresa é de despertar no colaborador a importância do trabalho em equipe e aprimorar as relações humanas.
Ø Necessidades de Estima: Nesta fase as pessoas passam a sentir necessidade de estima, ou seja, tanto de auto-estima quanto de reconhecimento por parte dos outros. Querem prestigio, status e consideração.À empresa cabe reconhecer os esforços do trabalhador através de elogios, promoções, premiação(não necessariamente com dinheiro)etc.
Ø Necessidades de Auto-Realização: Aqui começa a predominar a necessidade de realizar aquilo de que se é capaz e que realmente se gosta de fazer. São as necessidades mais elevadas e estão no alto da pirâmide de Maslow. As empresas podem atender a satisfação desta necessidade possibilitando ao trabalhador o uso de sua criatividade, da liberdade de expressão, de trabalhar naquilo que gosta etc.

Segundo a teoria de Maslow :


A motivação é interna e não externa.

As necessidades são hierárquicas (seguem uma ordem de prioridade) .
Uma necessidade uma vez satisfeita, não é mais um motivador.
Pode-se observar que cada pessoa tem um grau de interesse, desejo, habilidade aptidão para realizar suas atividades pessoais e profissionais.
Manter funcionários motivados, tentar que objetivos individuais sejam satisfeitos juntamente com os da organização, aumentar a produtividade, manter um espírito sadio de equipe, tem sido uma busca permanentemente pelos responsáveis em comportamento.
Deve-se considerar que o papel do lider é fundamental para a motivação de um grupo de trabalho; a ele compete administrar as diferenças individuais, conciliá-las e canalizá-las rumo às metas a serem alcançadas pela sua área.
Estar motivado é estar numa situação de estresse em satisfazer uma necessidade interna.À medida que as necessidades mais fundamentais vão sendo satisfeitas, as pessoas procuram uma crescente auto afirmação e realização.
Premiar funcionário é uma atitude motivadora?
Será motivadora se você conhecer bem as necessidades dele e conseguir perceber em que nível da pirâmide de Maslow ele se encontra.
Não seria nada motivador você presentear um funcionário que se encontra no nível fisiológico com uma placa de prata. Provavelmente este funcionário receberia bem melhor uma cesta básica.
Procure observar as necessidades, os desejos, os interesses e os sentimentos dos colaboradores da sua empresa afinal é perfeitamente possível motivar ‘Gregos e Troianos”.
Numa próxima oportunidade escreveremos sobre outros pesquisadores importantes na área comportamental especialmente relacionada à motivação.


autor: desconhecido

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